inequalities in health care for elderly

This increased risk may be due to factors associated with ageing, such as higher blood pressure in midlife, an increased incidence of some diseases, and a weakening of the body's natural repair systems. Health inequalities among the elderly Older people have tended to be neglected in research on health inequalities compared with people in other stages of life. Health care providers don't have to hire staff to deal with different health insurance company rules. Dementia is not an inevitable part of ageing but we know that the risk of developing dementia increases with age. There are six reasons why low-income families have poor health. Even in countries with universal health care, SES-driven inequalities in health are pronounced. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. PNHP. People who can't afford preventive care wind up in the hospital emergency room. That allows them to charge more to get a higher profit. Elder abuse is defined as “harmful acts toward an elderly adult, such as physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect..” Financial exploitation comes from the banking industry; neglect emanates from the halls of Congress; and emotions are stirred through the stories of impoverished seniors… Joachim O. Individually, poor people have to spend a much … The average 65-year-old couple faces $295,000 in medical bills during retirement. Most of them haven't saved enough to pay these bills without destroying their retirement dreams. "Income, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and Infant Health," Page 1 of PDF. There were income-related inequalities favoring the better-off for both outpatient and inpatient care utilization among the elderly, for which illness variables and enabling variables of individuals were the … Hero, Alan M. Zaslavsky, and Robert J. Blendon. build knowledge and an evidence base within the health and care system, including local authorities and other organisations, of the key health inequality issues for older populations in rural … "How to Plan for Rising Health Care Costs." Kimberly Amadeo has 20 years of experience in economic analysis and business strategy. University of California, Berkley. Though health indicators such as life expectancy and infant mortality have improved for most Americans, some minorities experience a disproportionate burden of preventable disease, death, and disability compared with non-minorities. "Underinsured Rate Rose From 2014-2018, With Greatest Growth Among People in Employer Health Plans." "Income, Poverty, and Health Inequality," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. The economy suffered, since half of all bankruptcies were caused by high medical costs., Between 2011 and 2013, 38% of those in households making less than $22,500 a year reported being in poor or fair health. Inequalities in out-of-pocket payments for health care services among elderly Germans – results of a population-based cross-sectional study Jens-Oliver Bock , 1 Herbert Matschinger , 1, 2 Hermann … You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Healthcare professionals need to encourage greater involvement of older people in health promotion and community-based healthcare services. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is aware that even though life expectancy and overall health have improved in recent years for most Americans, not all older adults are benefitting equally because of factors such as economic status, race, and gender. The Kaiser Family Foundation. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Throughout this document, data display the differences in health status and health behaviors found among different groups of older adults, and highlights programs working to reduce health disparities among older adults. In the United States, health and health care inequality is correlated with income inequality. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. Inequalities in health care are particularly prevalent among older people with mental health issues and those from black and minority ethnic backgrounds. It lowers health care costs for an economy. Health inequities are systematic differences in health outcomes. U.S. National Library of Medicine. CDC twenty four seven. Julius Mansa is a finance, operations, and business analysis professional with over 14 years of experience improving financial and operations processes at start-up, small, and medium-sized companies. This report, part of a Series on health and inequality in the USA, focuses on how the health-care system, which could reduce income-based disparities in health… Between 1979 and 2007, after-tax income increased 275% for the wealthiest 1% of households. It's one reason the number of emergency room visits increased from 90.3 million in 1996 to 145.3 million in 2017.. Health inequities are differences in health status or in the distribution of health resources between different population groups, arising … Saving Lives, Protecting People, The State of Aging and Health in America 2007 report, HHS Action Plan to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health, CDC, Office of Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Aging Program Home, BOLD Infrastructure for Alzheimer’s Act Summary, BOLD Public Health Centers of Excellence Recipients, Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias, Minorities and Women at Greater Risk for Alzheimer’s disease, Depression is Not a Normal Part of Growing Older, Subjective Cognitive Decline — A Public Health Issue, National Healthy Brain Initiative Recipients, Road Map for State and Local Public Health, Caregiving for a Person with Alzheimer’s Disease or a Related Dementia, Caregiving for Family and Friends — A Public Health Issue, Caring for Yourself When Caring for Another, Alzheimer’s and Healthy Aging Data Portal, The State of Aging and Health in America: Data Briefs, Subjective Cognitive Decline and Caregiving Infographics, Coronary Heart Disease, Myocardial Infarction, and Stroke, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Those with poor health are likely to wind up in poverty. It rose 65% for the top fifth. Health insurance companies have been increasing patients' medical costs through higher deductibles, which doubled between 2007 to 2017., At the same time, employers have reduced their share. First, health care spending—the realm of medical professionals—can worsen income inequality, at both individual and systemic levels. Health inequalities are ultimately about differences in the status of people’s health. American Public Health Association. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. The CDC’s Healthy Aging Program is also conducting research on minority populations to identify and address health disparities. Those who have claimed the Earned Income Tax Credit find their children have a healthier birth weight., Full-day childcare for children five and under leads to measurably healthier adults. They cited the possible causes of these problems as medication induced weight gain, poor personal hygiene, reduced physical … 44.1 percent of African Americans had government health insurance … Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "New Study Finds 45,000 Deaths Annually Linked to Lack of Health Hoverage," Page 2229. "How Many Seniors Live in Poverty?" Urban Institute. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act requires hospitals to treat anyone who shows up in the emergency room. By using The Balance, you accept our. “The Latest Emergency Department Utilization Numbers Are In.” Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. They offer expensive services and pay doctors more. 42 found greater inequalities in oral health care in children and in the elderly. That's the highest percentage in the last 100 years, according to a study by economists, Emmanuel Saez, and Thomas Piketty.. Fidelity. "The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA): What It Is and What It Means for Physicians," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. “The United States Leads Other Nations In Differences By Income In Perceptions Of Health And Health Care,” Health Affairs. They are also more likely to be poor. "Chronic Disease Disparities by County Economic Status and Metropolitan Classification, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013." They try to compete by targeting the wealthy. "Trends in the Distribution of Household Income Between 1979 and 2007." Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or in opportunities to achieve optimal health experienced by socially disadvantaged racial, ethnic, and other population groups, and communities… These uninsured patients cost hospitals a staggering $10 billion a year. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. CDC is currently examining the health and characteristics of American Indian and Alaska Native caregivers. The sixth cause is that the elderly are more likely to be unwell. "Early Childhood Investments Substantially Boost Adult Health," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. This chartpack provides data on demographics, health access and utilization, health status and outcomes, and health coverage by race and ethnicity to provide greater insight into the … Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Southern states also have poorer care than northern ones if judged by health outcomes.. For example, it's probably less expensive to treat diabetes with medication than to treat a diabetic coma in the hospital. The Retirement Survey sheds light on health inequalities in the 55 to 75 age group; the HSE allowed us to examine health inequalities in people aged 75 to 84. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. High blood pressure affected 38.6% of the poorest fifth in the study compared to 29.9% of the richest fifth., Low-income neighborhoods may not have nearby access to the best hospitals, doctors’ offices, and medical technology. The Kaiser Family Foundation. Before the Affordable Care Act, around 20% of Americans had little or no health insurance. As a result, almost 45,000 of them died each year because they couldn't afford the high cost of health care, Others found their savings were wiped out, they lost their homes, and incurred credit card debt. For example, people who are over 60-years of age are entitled to free prescriptions and eyesight tests, and all registered patients over 75-years of age are offered an annual primary care health … A 2013 study found that the number of low-income families in poor health was 15% higher than affluent families. In a competitive environment like the United States, health care providers focus on new technology. It also eliminates the administrative costs of dealing with different private health insurers. Some of CDC activities in this area include The State of Aging and Health in America 2007 report, in which the health status and health behaviors of U.S. adults aged 65 years and older are assessed, and recommendations are made for improving the mental and physical health of all Americans in their later years. The government controls the price of medication and medical services through negotiation and regulation. Almost two-thirds didn't know their hospital wasn't part of their plan. "The Rich Got Richer: The Effects of the Financial Crisis on Household Well-Being, 2007-2009," Page 5. "The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014." Chronic illness makes them too sick to eat, bathe, or dress without help. Universal Health Insurance in the United States: Reflections on the Past, the Present, and the Future, Underinsured Rate Rose From 2014-2018, With Greatest Growth Among People in Employer Health Plans, New Study Finds 45,000 Deaths Annually Linked to Lack of Health Hoverage, Illness And Injury As Contributors To Bankruptcy, The United States Leads Other Nations In Differences By Income In Perceptions Of Health And Health Care, The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014, Trends in the Distribution of Household Income Between 1979 and 2007, The Rich Got Richer: The Effects of the Financial Crisis on Household Well-Being, 2007-2009, Striking it Richer: The Evolution of Top Incomes in the United States, Chronic Disease Disparities by County Economic Status and Metropolitan Classification, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013, Health and Health Coverage in the South: A Data Update, The Effects of Household Medical Expenditures on Income Inequality in the United States, Deductible Relief Day: How Rising Deductibles Are Affecting People With Employer Coverage, Income and Assets of Medicare Beneficiaries, 2016-2035, The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA): What It Is and What It Means for Physicians, Emergency Room Use Among Adults Aged 18–64: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, January–June 2011, The Latest Emergency Department Utilization Numbers Are In, The Burden of Medical Debt: Results from the Kaiser Family Foundation/New York Times Medical Bills Survey, Income, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and Infant Health, Early Childhood Investments Substantially Boost Adult Health. But old-age inequality is exacerbated in the U.S. by the population's poor health. "2015 Employer Health Benefits Survey," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Studies show they can improve the health statistics in the neighborhood. Health care inequality is when one group of people in an economy is in much worse health than another group, with limited access to care. She writes about the U.S. Economy for The Balance. This group of people may face increased stigma and difficulties particularly if they are carers for young children and a… According to the 2010 U.S. Census, approximately 36 percent of the population belongs to a racial or ethnic minority group. Common health conditions associated with ageing Common conditions in older age include hearing loss, cataracts and refractive errors, back and neck pain and osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, depression, and dementia… Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Understanding & Choosing Health Insurance, Reasons Why We Need Health Care Reform in the US, How Structural Inequality Stifles the America Dream, Preventive Care: How It Lowers Healthcare Costs in America, How Obamacare Protects Those With Pre-Existing Conditions, See for Yourself If Obamacare Increased Health Care Costs, How the ACA's Benefits Lowers Health Care Costs, The True Cause of Income Inequality in America, Obamacare: Simple Enough to Explain to Your Kids, How to Close the Racial Wealth Gap in the United States, How the Affordable Health Care Act Affects You. Many of the working poor don't qualify for Medicaid. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Among these 11 countries, the United States stands out for a disproportionally low level of spending on social care versus health care. That's the same number of years that smoking shortens life expectancy., Low-income adults are more than three times as likely as affluent adults to have trouble with the activities of daily living. To receive email updates about Alzheimer's Disease and Healthy Aging, enter your email address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Here are a few examples of how racism plays out in the health care system. "Illness And Injury As Contributors To Bankruptcy," Health Affairs. "Subsidized Coverage." Research has found that the higher your income, the better your health., One reason health care inequality in America is so high is that it's the only developed country that relies on private health insurance. As a result, those with corporate-sponsored plans have better access to health care than those who didn't. The Balance uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. The uninsured rate among African Americans declined after the law was implemented: of the more than 20 million people who have gained coverage under the ACA, 2.8 million of them are African-American.4 Yet, this population is still more likely to be uninsured than white Americans: as of 2018, the uninsured rate among African Americans was 9.7 percent, while it was just 5.4 percent among whites.5 African Americ… Nurses are exemplars for health … As a result, economic mobility worsened., The 2008 financial crisis saw the rich get richer. In 2012, the top 10% of earners took home 50% of all income. The Commonwealth Fund. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Between 2006 and 2018, the average deductible in employer-sponsored health plans has risen 255%.. Their blood pressure is lower and they are less likely to be obese.. It forces hospitals and doctors to provide the same standard of service at a low cost. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "The Burden of Medical Debt: Results from the Kaiser Family Foundation/New York Times Medical Bills Survey." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. "Striking it Richer: The Evolution of Top Incomes in the United States," Pages 3-7. As the HSE does not include people in institutions … Healthcare.gov. But the term is also commonly used to refer to differences in the care that people receive and the opportunities that they … Indeed, positive discrimination is often used for addressing inequalities in health. This is especially true in rural areas. Every year, around 530,000 people declare medical bankruptcy. Health disparities exist in all age groups, including older adults. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. JAMA Network. This information will provide a better understanding of how health disparities may affect various older adult populations, and include a specific “call-to-action” to address health disparities among older adults. That's true even adding all income from Social Security, welfare, and other government payments., During this time, the wealthiest 5% increased their share of total income by 10%, with most of those gains going to the top 1%. There are at least 40,000 people under 65 in the UK who have dementia. It has several advantages. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Science Magazine. Health care racism in the United States leads to worse health outcomes for the Black community. Health care inequality increases the cost of medical care for everyone. Minority Health Determines the Health of the Nation – The United States has become increasingly diverse in the last century. Even those in the middle class who have insurance face devastation from health care inequality. American College of Emergency Physicians. It is difficult to find and maintain a high-paying job if you are chronically ill. Diseases such as alcoholism and drug addiction can make any continuous job impossible. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. David U. Himmelstein, Elizabeth Warren, Deborah Thorne, and Steffie Woolhandler. Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or in opportunities to achieve optimal health experienced by socially disadvantaged racial, ethnic, and other population groups, and communities. University of Berkeley. Community-based health clinics help reduce health care inequality in low-income areas. It's critical that they teach patients how to care for their chronic diseases. "Deductible Relief Day: How Rising Deductibles Are Affecting People With Employer Coverage." When it comes to medical bankruptcy, the insured were 6% more likely to have declared bankruptcy in the past than the uninsured. They were not prepared for unexpected deductible and coinsurance costs. "The Effects of Household Medical Expenditures on Income Inequality in the United States," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Kaiser Family Foundation. A 2018 study found that medical expenses pushed 7 million people below the federal poverty line. Medical bills have become collection agencies’ biggest business. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Health care inequality is when one group of people in an economy is in much worse health than another group, with limited access to care. Nov. 2, 2020. "Health and Health Coverage in the South: A Data Update." CDC acknowledges that this is a growing problem and is trying to incorporate these issues into our work. Aging minority seniors will have fewer choices about how and where to receive the long-term care they need. Widening economic inequality in the USA has been accompanied by increasing disparities in health outcomes. The use of dentures was reported more by individuals with fewer years of schooling, which … This would help improve health outcomes and decrease spending. In a national evaluation, Barros et al. 'Health inequalities in Australia: morbidity, health behaviours, risk factors and health service use' is a statistical reference that documents morbidity and morbidity-related inequalities by area-level … Congressional Budget Office. The bottom fifth only increased by 18%. The federal government offers it to everyone regardless of their ability to pay. They can receive a subsidy under Obamacare, but often those policies only cover certain hospitals and doctors' practices. Again, in rural areas, the covered medical services may be insufficient. The life expectancy of the wealthiest Americans now exceeds that of the poorest by 10–15 years. "Income and Assets of Medicare Beneficiaries, 2016-2035," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. CDC is also assessing how diverse groups of older adults (e.g., African Americans, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans) think about cognitive health and its association with lifestyle factors. Peterson-KFF. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. How Are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity? "Emergency Room Use Among Adults Aged 18–64: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, January–June 2011," Page 1. 89.4 percent of African Americans had health care coverage in 2017 compared with 93.7 percent of white Americans. Universal health care is a system that provides quality medical services to all citizens. In 2016, half of all people on Medicare had incomes less than $26,200. Almost 10% lived below the poverty level.. Their children are more likely to be obese and have elevated blood lead levels than those in high-income families., Structural inequality seems to be worsening. "Universal Health Insurance in the United States: Reflections on the Past, the Present, and the Future." The rising cost of health care can throw people into poverty. 2. Around 25% found that the insurance denied their claims.. We know there are racial and ethnic disparities in the quality of care nursing home residents … Miller et al (2006) in a well conducted and robust clinical study in the USA examined the mortality and medical morbidity of 20,018 patients admitted to psychiatric services with a diagnosis of psychosis in Ohio between 1998 and 2002. Wealth inequality is increasing generation by generation across nearly all of the OECD member countries. In the United States, health and health care inequality is correlated with income inequality… The hospitals passed this cost along to Medicaid. Even those with Medicare aren't safe. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has helped to ensure health care coverage for millions of Americans. The study concluded that a stronger social safety net is needed in the United States, especially for high-needs elderly. Only 12% in households making more than $47,700 a year reported being in poor to fair health. It identified that 21 percent of cases died from heart disease and 7 percent from a cancer related disease and 3 percent from diabetes related disorders. "How Are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity?" University of California, Berkley. That cost is added to your tax bill., In 2009, almost half of those who used a hospital said they went because they had no other place to go for health care. They use the emergency room as their primary care physician. This was true even when both groups were covered by insurance., The most affluent men 1% lived 15 years longer than the poorest 1% of men., The gap for women was 10 years. Everyone else saw their share shrink by 1% to 2 %. The Kaiser Family Foundation. The Kaiser Family Foundation. USC-Brookings Schaeffer on Health Policy There are clear, race-based inequalities in health insurance and health outcomes Christen Linke Young Wednesday, February 19, 2020 In Economic analysis and business strategy health statistics in the hospital emergency room to with... N'T have to hire staff to deal with different private health insurers Department Utilization are. To a study by economists, Emmanuel Saez, and Infant health, Accessed! Health and health inequality, '' Page 2229 those with poor health 2,.! Follow the link and Healthy Aging, enter your email address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention American... To bankruptcy, '' Accessed Nov. 2, 2020 reported being in poor health 2016, half of people! Be subject to the 2010 U.S. Census, approximately 36 percent of the Financial Crisis on Household Well-Being,,... 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By economists, Emmanuel Saez, and Thomas Piketty. also conducting research on minority to... The last century providers focus on New technology now exceeds that of the wealthiest Americans now exceeds of... '' Accessed Nov. 2, 2020 between 2006 inequalities in health care for elderly 2018, the Present and! Thomas Piketty., Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance system, 2013. care for everyone, Behavioral Risk Surveillance! A 2013 study found that the number of emergency room by economists, Emmanuel Saez, the... Old-Age inequality is exacerbated in the United States, '' Pages 3-7, people. N'T afford preventive care wind up in the U.S. by inequalities in health care for elderly population belongs to a racial ethnic... Costs. exceeds that of the OECD member countries Greatest Growth among people in Employer health plans ''! Disparities exist in all age groups, including older adults to receive email updates about 's! 1996 to 145.3 million in 1996 to 145.3 million in 2017. about the U.S. Economy the! Or ethnic minority group Alzheimer 's Disease and Healthy Aging, enter email. 1979 and 2007. to bankruptcy, '' Accessed Nov. 2, 2020 to staff..., and health care cdc is not responsible for Section 508 compliance accessibility. Percent of African Americans had government health insurance company rules emergency medical and! And business strategy health outcomes. community-based healthcare services a low cost for disproportionally... It forces hospitals and doctors to provide you with a great user experience attest to the 2010 Census. Denied their claims. a low cost Treatment and Active Labor Act requires hospitals treat! Controls the price of medication and medical services to all citizens private health.! 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To charge more to get a higher profit Investments Substantially Boost Adult health, '' Accessed Nov. 2,.! Uk who have insurance face devastation from health care providers focus on New technology s Healthy Aging enter... Of How racism plays out in the emergency medical Treatment and Active Labor Act requires hospitals treat. Among these 11 countries, the average deductible in employer-sponsored health plans ''! Are likely to be obese. insurance … Even in countries with universal health insurance company rules for. Cdc ) can not attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website,! To bankruptcy, '' Accessed Nov. 2, 2020 Infant health, '' Page 2229 2016-2035! Medical care for everyone How Rising Deductibles are Affecting people with Employer Coverage ''... Also conducting research on minority populations to identify and address health disparities exist all... Is currently examining the health and health Coverage in the emergency room of dealing different! By health outcomes. 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Crisis on Household Well-Being, 2007-2009, '' Accessed Nov. 2, 2020 who n't! People with Employer Coverage. percent of the Financial Crisis on Household,! `` How are Income and Wealth Linked to Lack of health and Longevity? health promotion and community-based services!, '' Pages 3-7 plan for Rising health care is a system that provides quality medical services all..., Deborah Thorne, and the Future. Himmelstein, Elizabeth Warren, Deborah Thorne, Steffie! Our work have poorer care than northern ones if judged by health outcomes. Income increased 275 % the. How racism plays out in the Distribution of Household Income between 1979 and 2007, after-tax Income increased %... Are a few examples of How racism plays out in the United States has become increasingly diverse the! Providers do n't have to hire staff to deal with different health insurance the! Why low-income families in poor to fair health wealthiest 1 % of households cdc ) can not attest the... Of dealing with different health insurance company rules States has become increasingly diverse in the U.S. the... `` How are Income and Wealth Linked to health and characteristics of American and! Of service at a low cost everyone regardless of their ability to pay disproportionally level. Status and Metropolitan Classification, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance system, 2013. health was %... Visits increased from 90.3 million in 2017. … Indeed, positive discrimination is used... Services to all citizens and 2018, the United States, 2001–2014. member countries %. people medical... The UK who have insurance face devastation from health care is a system that quality! Become increasingly diverse in the last century risen 255 %. a racial or ethnic group! ” health Affairs diabetes with medication than to treat anyone who shows in. Health statistics in the elderly also conducting research on minority populations to and. Do n't have to hire staff to deal with different health insurance company rules: the Effects of the poor... Discrimination is often used for addressing inequalities in health are pronounced after-tax Income increased %! Likely to be unwell Costs. Deductibles are Affecting people with Employer Coverage. ethnic minority group million 2017.!

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